It requires deep and fertile soil with pH of 4.5 to 6.0. Requires tropical temperature of
20 – 300C with the well distributed rainfall of 2000 – 5000 mm and an elevation of 300 – 800
m above MSL is ideal.
Pit size of 1 m3 are dug and filled up with top soil and compost.
Planting material Spacing (m) Population / ha Budded plants Hilly areas 6.7 X 3.4 445 Plains 4.9 X 4.9 420 Seedlings Hilly areas 6.1 X 3.0 539 Plains 4.6 X 4.6 479 In situ sowing Germinated seeds are sown in situ in the pits. Healthy ones are retained and the others removed.
Manuring is done for immature rubber trees at pre-tapping stage. Apply 12 kg of compost or FYM and 120 g of rock phosphate in each pit before planting. Apply 10:10:4:1.5 NPK and Mg as per schedule given below: Months after planting Period of application NPK and Mg mixture(10:10:4:1.5) g/plant kg/ha 3 September/ October 225 100 9 April / May 445 200 15 September/ October 450 200 21 April / May 450 250 27 September/ October 550 250 33 April / May 550 200 39 September/ October 450 200 Apply 400 kg of mixture per ha in 2 doses, once in April/May and another in September/October from the 5th year till the tree is ready for tapping. For matured rubber trees under tapping, apply NPK 10:10:10 grade mixtures at the rate of 900 g/tree (300 kg/ha) every year in two split doses. Add 10 kg commercial Magnesium sulphate for every 100 kg of the above mixture, if there is magnesium deficiency.
Growing of cover crops, incorporation of cover crops and weeding are important
operations for soil conservation. Pueraria phaseoloides, Calopagonium muconoides,
Centrosema pubescens and Desmodium evalifolium are common cover crops.
Banana, pineapple, tuber crops (Amorphophallus, dioscorea, colocasia and arrowroot), ginger, turmeric, vegetables (cowpea, cucumber, bhendi, amaranthus), cocoa, medicinal plants(Strobilanthus haenianus (Karimkurinji), Adhatoda vasica (Valiya Adalodakam) and Plumbago rosea (Chuvanna Koduveli) can be grown in the initial 4 to 5 years.
Mulching or covering the plant basin with dry leaves, cover crop cuttings, grass cuttings,
paddy straw etc is recommended. Protection of young rubber plants from strong sun: Using plaited
coconut leaf tree guards and white washing brown portions of the main stem
The rubber plants should be induced to produce branches at a height of 2.5 – 3 m
to achieve high rate of growth with increased girth through leaf cap or leaf folding
method. In young green tissues, the leaf folding or leaf cap method can be used. In the leaf
folding method, the leaves of the top whorl are folded down at the point of contact of the
petiole with the lamina using only the upper few leaves to enclose the apical bud. The leaves
are then tied with a rubber band. After three to four weeks they are released. In plants where
the terminal whorl of leaves is in the leaflet or bud break stage, the leaf cap method is
recommended. Here, three mature leaflets are taken to form a cap to enclose the terminal
bud and tied with a rubber band. The cap is then removed three to four weeks later.
Trees attain tappable stage in about 7 years. First tapping in seedling trees will commence
when the trunk attains a girth of 55 cm at 50 cm height from the ground. In budded trees, the
girth should be 50 cm at 125 cm height from the bud union. The depth of tapping should be 1
mm close to cambium, since greater number of latex vessels are concentrated near the
S/2 d/2 (Half spiral, alternate day for 6 months and rested for 3 months) 100% Intensity S /2 d/2 6m /9 (Half spiral, alternate day for 6 months and rested for 3 months) 67% Intensity S /2d/3 (Half spiral, third day) 67% Intensity S/2 d/3 1m/2 (Half spiral, daily for one month and rested for next month) 100% Intensity S /1 d/4 Full spiral,fourth day 100% Intensity V /2 d/2 12m/16 Half circumstances and cut alternate day for 12 months and rested 75% Intensity
Ethrel is recommended to increase latex yield of trees tapped on panel D. It is
applied at 5 % a.i. concentration with a brush below the tapping cut to a width of 5 cm after
light scraping of the outer bark. The first application may be done after a drought period
preferably after a few pre-monsoon showers and subsequent applications may be done in
September and November. However, continuous application of Ethrel is not recommended
for periods of more than 3 years at a stretch.
Pests Scale insect When severe infestation is noticed, spray malathion 50 EC@ 2 ml/lit. Mealy bug Spray fish oil rosin – soap 25 g/lit. Release Australian lady bird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10/tree. Termite (White ant) Drench the soil at the base of affected plants with chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2 ml/litre. Cockchafer grub Drench soil at the base of plants in the affected area with the solution of Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2 ml/litre. Mites Spray Dicofol 18.5 EC @ 2.5 ml/lit.
Abnormal leaf fall and Secondary leaf fall Prophylactic spraying of the foliage prior to the onset of South-West monsoon with 1% bordeaux mixture at 4000 – 5000 l/ha using high volume sprayer Oil based copper oxychloride using low volume sprayer or through aerial application. Two rounds of spray using about 17 to 22 l of fungicide oil mixture per ha per round (1:6 proportion) at 10 to 15 days interval or a single round of spray with about 30 – 37 l of fungicide oil mixture per ha (1:5 proportion)
Powdery mildew Dusting during the defoliation period commencing from the bud break in about 10% of the trees, giving 3 to 5 rounds at weekly to fortnightly intervals before 10 a.m. using 11 to 14 kg of 325 mesh fine sulphur dust/round/ ha Sulphur dust can be mixed with talc in the proportion of 7:3 Wettable sulphur (1 kg in 4000 l of water) is also effective in nurseries and for young plants as a spray Bird’s eye spot Repeated sprayings with 1% bordeaux mixture or mancozeb or copper oxychloride @ 0.2 % Leaf spot Spray 1% bordeaux mixture or mancozeb @ 0.2% or carbendazim @ 0.1% at fortnightly intervals Pink disease Frequent tree to tree inspection during July – September period for detecting the infected trees and application of Bordeaux paste in the early stages upto 30 cm above and below the affected region In advanced cases apply Bordeaux paste and when it dries up scrape off the superficial mycelium and damaged bark and apply Bordeaux paste once again Prune off and burn the dried-up branches after disinfecting by Bordeaux mixture spraying Patch or bark canker The affected region may be scraped to remove all the rotting bark and the coagulated rubber and the wound washed well with mancozeb @ 0.75 % When the fungicide dries up apply wound dressing compound Dry rot, stump rot, collar rot or charcoal rot Clean up affected areas by washing with carbendazim @ 0.1% Scrape out the fructifications. Affected bark and wood show black lines. Wash the wound again with fungicide solution.When it dries up apply a wound dressing compound Avoid accumulation of rubber at the base of the trees Brown root Open up the root system Completely killed and dried roots may be traced and pruned Partially affected and healthy roots washed with carbendazim @ 0.1% Drench the base with carbendazim @ 0.1%