Bitter Gourd(Momordica charantia L.); Cucurbitaceae

CO 1, MDU 1, Arka Harit, VK1, Priya and Preethi.

COBgoH1

Sandy loam rich in organic matter with good drainage and pH range of 6.5-7.5.
July and January. Sow the seeds (3 seeds/pit) treated with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g or carbendazim @ 2 g/kg of seeds and thin the seedlings to two per pit after 15 days.
Variety: 2.2 kg/ha and hybrid: 1.5 kg/ha.
Plough the field to fine tilth. Dig pits of 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm size at 2 x 1.5 m spacing and form basins.
Irrigate the basins before dibbling the seeds and thereafter once in a week
Bitter gourd is a direct sown vegetable but polythene bag nursery is more advantageous to get early marketing and to avoid more gap filling. Use 200 gauge poly bags of 10 cm diameter x 10 cm height for sowing the seeds. Transplant about 15 days old seedlings to the main field.
Apply 10 kg of FYM (20 t/ha) and 100 g of NPK 6:12:12 mixture per pit as basal and 10 g of N per pit 30 days after sowing. Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria 2 kg/ha and Pseudomonas @ 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg/ha and neem cake @ 100 kg/ha before last ploughing.
Install drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5m. Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively
Form the raised beds of 120cm width and spread the lateral tubes in the centre of each bed. Irrigation is done in the beds by operating the drip system continuously for 8-12 hrs. Spray pre emergence herbicide like Pendimethalin @ 1 Kg a.i/ha just before planting. Planting or sowing is done at the holes made at 2 m distance.
Apply a dose of 200:100:100 kg NPK/ha throughout the cropping period through split application.

Bitter gourd (Hybrid)
Recommended dose: 200:100:100 kg/ha
Crop Stage Duration
in Days
Fertilizer
grade
Total
Fertilizer
(Kg/ha)
Nutrient Supplied % Requirement
N P K N P K
Crop
establishment
10 19:19:19 +
MN
13-0-45
Urea
26.81
11.00
29.03
5.00
1.43
13.35
5.00


5.00
4.95

10.00 5.00 10.0
Subtotal 19.78 5.00 9.95
Vegetative 30 12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea
12.28
66.00
109.00
1.47
8.58
50.14
7.49



29.70

30.00 7.50 30.0
Subtotal 60.19 7.49 29.70
Flower
initiation to
first picking
30 12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea
12.28
44.00
115.00
1.47
5.72
52.90
7.49



19.80

30.00 7.50 20.0
Subtotal 60.09 7.49 19.80
Harvesting 45 19:19:19 +
MN
13-0-45
Urea
26.31
78.00
97.52
5.00
10.14
44.86
5.00


5.00
35.10

30.00 5.00 40.0
Total
duration
115 days Subtotal 60.00 5.00 40.10
Total 200.0
6
24.9
8
(or)
25.0
99.35
(or)
100.0
100 25 100
*75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 469 Kg/ha.
1. 19:19:19 = 53 kg/ha
2. 13:0:45 = 199kg/ha
3. 12:61:0 = 25 kg/ha
4. Urea = 351 kg/ha

Hoe and weed thrice. Provide stakes for the plants to reach the pandal (2 m). Spray Ethrel 100 ppm (1 ml dissolved in 10 lit of water) four times from 15th day after sowing at weekly intervals

Pests
For Leaf miner – Liriomyza trifolii,
Red pumpkin beetle – Aulacophora foveicollis,
Aphids– Aphis gossypii,
Thrips– Thrips palmi,
White fly – Bemesia tabaci,
Pumpkin caterpillar – Diaphania indica and
Fruit fly– Bactrocera cucurbitae,
Spray cyantraniliprole 10.26 OD @1.8ml/lit. or Azadirachtin 0.03%


Aphids and jassids
Imidacloprid 70 WG                                                   1.0g/10lit.
Fruit borers & Caterpillars
Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC                                       2.0ml/10lit.
Red Spider mite
Dicofol 18.5 EC                                                             2.0ml/lit.
Fruit fly
1. Collect the affected fruits and destroy.
2. The fly population is low in hot day conditions and it is peak in rainy season. Hence
adjust the sowing time accordingly.
3. Expose the pupae by ploughing.
4. Install cucurbit fruit fly trap @ 4/ acre
5. Neem oil @ 3.0 %
Do not use copper and sulphur dust, as these are phytotoxic

Powdery mildew
 Spray dinocap @ 1 ml/l or carbendazim @ 0.5 g/l
Downy mildew
 Spray mancozeb or chlorothalonil @ 2 g/l twice at 10 days interval
CIB recommendation
 Spray ametoctradin + dimethomorph 20.27% w/w SC @ 0.04%

Varieties : 14 t/ha in 140 – 150 days.
Hybrids : 40 t/ha in 180 days

Crop Growing districts:            Coimbatore, Dindigul, Cuddalore, Thoothukudi, Tiruppur
Major markets in Tamil Nadu Periyar Vegetable Market, Koyambedu, Chennai Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram Natchipalayam vegetable market, Coimbatore
Grade Specification 20-25 cm long green fruits with short neck and tubercles are preferred

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