Potato(Solanum tubersome L.); Solanaceae

Kufri Gridari, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Muthu, Kufri Swarna, Kufri Thangam and Kufri Malar

The soil should be friable, porous and well drained. The optimum pH range is 4.8 to 5.4. It is a cool weather crop. Potato is mostly grown as a rainfed crop. Cultivated in regions receiving a rainfall of 1200 – 2000 mm per annum.

Hills
Summer : March – April
Autumn : August – September
Irrigated : January – February


Plains
October – November.
Use disease free, well sprouted seed tubers weighing 40 – 50 g. Use Carbon disulphide
30 g/100 kg of tubers for breaking the dormancy and inducing sprouting of tubers. Plant the
tubers at 20 cm apart.

3,000 – 3,500 kg/ha.

Prepare the land to fine tilth. Provide drainage channel along the inner edge of the terrace. Form ridges and furrows with a spacing of 45 cm between ridges.

60 x 30 x 20cm in paired row system

Irrigate the crop 10 days after planting. Subsequent irrigation should be given once in a week.

Install drip system with main and sub-main and place the inline laterals at the interval of 1.5. Place the drippers at the interval of 60 cm for 4 LPH or 50 cm for 3.5 LPH in the lateral system. Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.
Apply 15 t of FYM/ha, and 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria as basal and 120 kg N, 240 kg P and 120 kg K/ha in two splits; half as basal and the balance as top dressing 30 days after sowing. Apply magnesium sulphate at 60 kg/ha, 75 kg S and 25 kg Znso4 ha-1 as basal dose
120: 240:120 kg of NPK / ha. Apply once in every three days throughout the cropping period.

Potato (Variety)
Recommended dose: 120:240:120 kg NPK/ha

135

Crop Stage
Durat
ion in
days
Fertiliz
er
grade
Total
fertilize
r
(kg/ha)
Nutrient supplied % Requirement
N P K N P K
Planting to
crop
establishment
20
19:19:1
9+MN 63.15 12.00 12.0 12.0 10.0 5.0 10.0
subtotal 12.00 12.0
0
12.00
Vegetative 30
12-61-0
13-0.45
Urea
39.34
106.67
63.82
4.72
13.87
29.36
24.0



48.0

30.0 10.0 30.0
subtotal 47.95 24.0
0
48.00
Tuber
formation 35
19:19:1
9+MN
13-0-45
Urea
63.15
53.33
37.04
12.00
6.93
17.04
12.0


12.00
24.00

40.00 5.00 30.00
subtotal 35.9 12.0 36.0
Tuber
development 35
12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea
19.67
53.33
31.92
2.36
6.93
14.68
12.0



24.0

20.00 5.0 30.00
Sub
total 23.9 12.0 24.0
Total 119.8 60.0 120.0 100.0 25.0 100.0
75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 1125 kg/ha as basal dose.
In hills rock phosphate is the source for P
1. 19:19:19 = 126 kg/ha
2. 13:0:45 = 213 kg / ha
3. 12:61:0 = 59 kg / ha
4. Urea = 133 kg / ha

Weed control
Spray Gramaxone @ 2.5 l/ha in 500 lit of water as post – emergence. The critical period of weed-competition is upto 60 days and it is essential to keep the field weed-free during that period. Take up the first hoeing on 45th day without disturbing stolons and second
hoeing and earthing up on 60th day.

Pests
Cut worms
 Plough soil during summer months
 Set up light trap between 7-10 pm to attract the adults.
 Set up pheromone traps @ 8/acre to monitor and attract male moths.
 Collect the first instar larvae from lace-like damaged leaves.
 Collect the grown up larvae from the soil (near the damaged stem) and destroy.
 Set up sprinkler system during day time to expose the hidden larvae for predation by birds.

 Apply NSKE 5% or neem oil @ 2 lit/acre using 500 litres of spray fluid.
 Collect grown up caterpillars mechanically or spray Bacillus thuringiensis @ 2g/litre


Potato tuber moth
 Select healthy tubers and plant at 15 cm depth to avoid oviposition.
 Set up pheromone traps @ 5/acre. Septa can be replaced once in a year.
 Release egg-larval parasitoid, Chelonus blackburnii @12,000 parasites/acre twice(on 40 and 70 days after planting)
 Earth up and cover the tubers to prevent oviposition in exposed tubers.
 Cover the top layers of seed tubers with Lantana or Euclayptus branches to repel the ovipositing female moths.
 Spray quinalphos 25 EC @ 1 lit /ha at ETL of 5% leaf damage


Aphids
 Apply carbofuran 3CG @ 17 kg /ha or drench thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 200 g in 500 lit of water per ha or spray any one of the following Insecticide:


 Dimethoate 30% EC 1.0 ml/ lit.
 Thiamethoxam 25 WG 2.0g/10lit.
 Methyl demeton 25 EC 2.0ml/lit.
 Carbofuran 3 CG 16.6 kg/ha


Jassids
Carbofuran 3 CG 33.3 kg/ha


Thrips
Spray dimethoate 30 EC 1.0ml/lit

Avoid growing potato year after year in the same field; seed treatment with P. fluorescens @ 20g/kg followed by soil application of P. fluorescens or Purpureocillium lilacinum @ 5kg/ha mixed with 250kg FYM.

Late blight
 Carefully select seed tubers
 Remove ground creepers which serve as a source of infection
 Spray mancozeb @ 2 g/l or chlorothalonil @ 2 g/l on 45, 60 and 75 days after planting
 Grow late blight resistant varieties like Kufri Jyothi, Kufri Malar and Kufri Thangam.


Brown rot
 Select disease free seeds
 Give proper drainage facilities
 Remove and destroy the affected plants


Early blight
 Spray hexaconazole 2% SC @ 0.06% or mancozeb @ 2 g/l or chlorothalonil @ 2 g/l at 45, 60 and 75 days after planting


Virus diseases
 Use virus free potato seed tubers
 Rogue out the virus affected plants regularly
 Control the aphid vectors by application of carbofuran 3CG @ 17 kg /ha or drench with thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 200 g in 500 lit of water per ha or dimethoate 30% EC 1.0 ml/ l or thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 2 g/10l or methyl demeton 25 EC @ 2.0 ml/l

15 – 20 t/ha in a duration of 120 days.

Crop Growing districts                                   Dindigul, Nilgiris
Major markets in Tamil Nadu                        Ottanchathiram, Koyambedu, Mettupalayam, Coimbatore
Preferred Varieties and hybrids                     Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Swarna
Grade Specification                                           Hardness, higher shelf life, pure yellow colour
                                                                               Thala – 40-60 mm
                                                                                Rasi- 20-40 mm
                                                                                Podi – 10-20 mm

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