Papaya (Carica Papaya L.); Caricaceae

CO 2, CO 3, CO 4, CO 5, CO 6, CO 7 and TNAU Papaya CO 8. The papaya varieties CO 3 and CO 7 are gynodioecious (bisexual + female) types highly suitable for table purpose and CO 2, CO 5, CO 6 and CO 8 are dual-purpose varieties for table and papain
‘Red Lady’ is also being grown for commercial purposes. .

It is a tropical fruit and grows well in regions where summer temperature ranges from 35o C – 38o C. Tolerates frost and comes up to an elevation of 1200 m. Well drained soils of uniform texture are preferable. If drainage is not adequate, collar – rot disease may

500 g of seeds are required for planting one ha. Seed rate Gynodioecious and Dioecious variety : 500 grams per ha (200g /acre) Sowing should be taken in the poly bags 4-6 seeds per bag is recommended dioecious variety 2-4 seeds per bag for gynodioecious varieties.
June – September is the best season for planting. Avoid planting during rainy season.

Treat the seeds with Captan @ 2 g / kg of seeds. Dibble 5-6 seeds for dioecious varieties and 3-4 seeds for gynodioecious varieties in polythene bags at a depth not exceeding one cm. Raise the seedlings in a protected structure to avoid Papaya Ring Spot
Virus incidence. Provide partial shade. Water the bags with rose can. Seedlings will be ready in about 60 days.

Plant the seedlings at 1.8 m either ways in pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm size. Avoid planting in severe summer as well as in peak rainy season. Avoid water stagnation in the basin.

Irrigate copiously after planting. Irrigate the field once in a week.

Apply FYM 10 kg / plant as basal. Apply 50 g in each of N, P and K per plant at bimonthly intervals from the third month of planting after removing unwanted sex forms. Apply Arbuscular mycorrhizae (50 g/plant), phosphate solubilising bacteria (25 g/plant), Azospirillum (50 g/plant) and Trichoderma harzianum (50 g/plant) at the time of planting. Apply 20 g in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria again six months after planting.

Apply 10 litres of water per day + 13.5 g urea and 10.5 g muriate of potash / week
through drip irrigation and soil application of super phosphate 300 g per plant at bimonthly
intervals starting from 3-4 months after planting immediately after thinning of plants is

Male plants should be removed after the emergence of inflorescence maintaining one
male plant for every 20 female plants for proper fruit-set. In each pit, only one vigorously

growing female / hermaphrodite plants should be retained and other plants should be
removed.In gynodioecious types like CO 3 and CO 7, keep one hermophrodite type / pit and
remove female plants.

Spray 0.5% Zinc sulphate and 0.1% Boric acid at 4th and 8th MAP to improve growth
and yield.

 To control nematodes in the nursery, apply carbofuran 3G @ 1 g/polythene bag after
 Apply neem cake @250 g /plant or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 4 g /plant to
minimize reniform and root knot nematode population in the main field

Root rot and wilt
 In water stagnated areas root-rot may appear and good drainage is vital
 It is advisable to drench the soil with 1% Bordeaux mixture or metalaxyl @ 0.2% at
fortnightly intervals 2 to 4 times
Papaya ringspot disease
 Raise papaya seedlings in insect proof net house
 Spray with a systemic insecticide 3 days before transplanting
 Grow two rows of border crop with maize at one month before transplanting of
 Apply FYM @10 kg/pit
 For vector management, spray dimethoate @1.5 ml / l at monthly intervals up to 5
months after planting followed by zinc sulphate @ 0.5% + boron @0.1% at 4th and 7th

month after planting

24 – 30 months.

February – June and September – October. Ripen the fruits in air tight room by keeping a
beaker containing 5000 ppm Ethrel + 10 g NaOH pellets in an air tight chamber (5 ml Ethrel in
one lit of water is 5000 ppm). Alternatively, fruits can be exposed to ethylene gas at 100 – 200
ppm for 18 – 20 hrs to induce ripening.

Fruits should be picked at colour break stage

The average yield is as follows
CO 2 : 200 – 250 t / ha
CO 3 : 100 – 120 t / ha
CO 5 : 200 – 250 t / ha
CO 6 : 120 – 160 t / ha
CO 7: 200 – 225 t / ha
CO 8: 220 – 230 t / ha

Papain has several industrial uses, the important one being in brewing industries.
It is used as ―meat tenderiser‖ and in textile and leather ―sanforization‖ processes and
drugs.The method of extraction of papain from papaya fruits is simple. The latex should be
tapped from immature papaya fruits. Select 75 to 90 days old fruits. On the selected fruit, give
incisions (cut) with a razor blade or stainless steel knife. The cuts should be given from stalk to
tip of the fruit. The depth of the cut should not be more than 0.3 cm. Four such cuts are
given spaced equally on the fruit surface. Tap the latex early in the morning and complete the
tapping before 10.00 A.M. Repeat the tapping four times on the same fruit at an interval of
three days. The cut should be given on the fruit surface in places not covered by previous cuts.
The latex collected from all the plants in a day should be pooled, shade dried in an aluminium
pan or tray and passed through a 50 mesh sieve to remove all foreign matter.

In large plantations, vacuum driers can be adopted with advantage. Papain produced by artificial
heating will have better colour and high quality. Add Potassium meta-bi-sulphite (KMS) at
0.5 % for better colour and keeping quality.
The latex should be dried very rapidly at temperatures of 50 to 55oC. Stop drying
when the dried product comes off as flakes having a porous texture. Powder the dried papain
by means of wooden mallets or in electrically operated granulators and sieve the powder
through 10 mesh sieve. Pack the powder in polythene bags in convenient quantities and
seal them. Put the sealed bags in a tin container and seal it after evacuating air. Exposure
to air deteriorates the quality of papain and vacuum sealing is therefore necessary. For large
scale manufacture of papain, vacuum sealing machine and a granulator will be useful.The
green papaya fruits after extraction of papain can be used for pectin manufacture and ―tuity
fruity‖ or they can be allowed to ripen and made into other products. The CO 2, CO 5 and
CO 8 varieties of papaya released by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore are
ideal for papain production. 

The yield of crude papain is as follows: CO 2: 600 kg / ha, CO 5 & CO 8: 800 kg / haAccordion Content

Germination improvement
Store the seeds in airtight containers. Soak the seeds in 100 ppm GA3 for 16 hours or in 2% fresh leaf extract of arappu or 1% pungam leaf extract or pellet the seeds with arappu leaf powder.

Optimum depth of sowing
Sow seeds at 1 cm depth for better germination and seedling growth.

BSS 6 wire mesh sieve.
Dry seeds to 8-10% moisture and treat with halogen mixture containing CaOCl2, CaCO3 and arappu leaf powder (at 5:4:1 ratio) @ 3 g / kg and pack in cloth bag to maintain viability upto 5 months.

Invigoration of old seeds
Stored seeds can be invigorated by soaking them in dilute solution of disodium
phosphate (10-4 M) adopting 1:8 seed to solution ratio for 4 hours, followed by drying back to
original moisture content