Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.); Vitaceae

Muscat Hamburg (Panneer) is the major variety grown in Tamil Nadu.

Table varieties
Muscat Hamburg (Panneer / Gulabi), Pachadraksha, Anab-e-Shahi, Dil Kush,Thompson Seedless, Red Globe, Tas-A-Ganesh, Manik Chaman, Sonaka, Sharad Seedless, Nana Saheb Purple, Crimson Seedless, Fantasy Seedless, Italia, Flame Seedless and Clone A-18/3.
Juice varieties
Manjari Medika, Punjab MACS Purple (H-516), Bangalore Blue, Concord, Arka Shyam,
Raisin varieties
Thompson Seedless, Tas-A-Ganesh, Manik Chaman, Merbein Seedless, Kishmish Rozavis White (KR White), 2A Clone, Kishmish Bailey, Black Monukka
Wine varieties
Red wine: Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, Merlot, Zinfandel, Pinot Noir
White wine: Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier, Temperanillo

Grapes prefer dry humid condition for better growth and yield. Areas within the temperature range of 15 to 40oC and rainfall lies between 500 and 900 mm are suitable for this crop. Rain should not coincide with vine growth after pruning and bunch ripening phase. Cloudy weather with high relative humidity, fog and low temperature are not suitable for flowering and fruit set. This results in build up of fungal diseases which ultimately leads to loss in yield. Well-drained rich loamy soil with a pH of 6.5 – 7.0 with low water table with EC less than 1.0 is congenial for its cultivation. The soil depth should be atleast 1 m for proper root development and vine establishment. The rootstocks viz., Dogridge and 110 R can be used to overcome the high soil pH, drought and salinity in irrigation water with EC upto 8 m.mhos cm2 . The day time temperature ranging from 20oC to 35oC is optimum for proper vine growth and establishment
The grapevine can be trained over pandal system or improved ‗‘Y‘‘ trellis training system. ‗‘Y‘‘ trellis system facilitates mechanization inside the grape vineyard for ploughing, bed formation, interploughing and tractor mounted spray of plant protection chemicals, foliar nutrients and plant growth regulators. The dogridge rootstocks or own rooted cutting of varieties are used as planting materials for the establishment of grape vineyards. Trenches of 2.5 ft depth and 2.5 ft width has to be opened in North-South direction based on the field length to get proper root zone development. This helps in harvest of maximum sunlight for photosynthesis and fruit bud differentiation. Fill the trenches with top soil, FYM, sheep manure, green manure, super phosphate etc., and irrigate copiously. This should be done one month prior to the planting of rootstocks or rooted cuttings. The best time for planting rootstocks in the field is during 21 January – February. The rootstock after planting in the soil requires regular irrigation at periodical interval in its field capacity. In light textured soils, the rootstocks should be irrigated daily. There is no fertilizer requirement upto one month after planting since the roots are not active and require some time for settling. The rootstock plant once settled in the soil should be allowed to grow as such till 50 days from the planting time. The number of shoots sprouted from each plant helps in increasing the root density. These plants are cut back from the base. One month after sprouting, the plants should be retained with 2-3 healthy disease free and vigorous shoots. These shoots are tied with bamboo or casuarina poles with the help of korai fibre or jute thread. On 5-6 months old grown up rootstocks, in situ grafting is done with the scion sticks with 2-3 healthy buds of 15-25 cm length. The in situ grafting can be performed during June to September. The rootstocks are decapitated at 1.5 feet height from the ground level before grafting. At the time of grafting, temperature of 32-35OC and high relative humidity of 80 per cent in the atmosphere and rootstocks with high sap flow are preferred for getting high graft take. Simple wedge grating is the best method for in situ grating for getting maximum success for the establishment of grapes vines. Whereas the best time for planting the own rooted cuttings is June-July.
Spacing interval of 4 x 2 m for commercial grape varieties and 3 x 2 m for Muscat Hamburg.

Irrigate immediately after planting and on the 3rd day and then once in a week. Withheld irrigation 15 days before pruning and also 15 days before harvest.
Irrigation water requirement for grapes through drip irrigation for table grapes varieties
Growth stage                                                     Duration(Days after pruning)                                    Water requirement(lpd/hectare)
Shoot growth                                                                             1- 40                                                                                 33,600 – 50,400
Fruit bud differentiation                                                          41 – 60                                                                                 11,200 -14,000
Cane maturity and Fruit bud
development*                                                                          61 – 120                                                                                       0 – 8,400
121days – fruit pruning                                                                                                                                                              * 0 – 8,400
Shoot growth                                                                              1 – 40                                                                                  33,200 – 42,000
Bloom to shatter                                                                       41 – 55                                                                                   5,600 – 8,400
Berry growth and development                                             56 -105                                                                                 12,600 – 25200
Ripening to harvest                                                                106 – harvest                                                                        33,600 – 42,000
Rest period                                                               Harvest to foundation pruning

Once new shoots are started from the scion portion after grafting or from the own rooted cuttings, train the shoots straight by tying them to bamboo sticks or casuarina poles. The girth of the graft union tend to increase during the graft growth, during this time the polythene strips have to be removed to avoid the girdling damage or constriction over the main stem. For getting uniformity in growth of grapevines by giving recut at 3rd node position above the graft joint. Immediately after the recut, faster sprouting will be noticed and this needs proper management for the cordon development by adopting ”Halt and Go” method. The growth is nipped of one feet below the level of pandal or ”Y” trellis and then trained to form trunk, primary and secondary arm (cordon) of the grapevine. In this method, the newly growing shoots are cut at 6-7 leaf stage when the growth attains 8-9 leaf. The vines are trained with single stem upto pandal with a stalk on tipping at 2 m height. The main arms are developed and trained on opposite directions. On further tipping, secondary and tertiary arms are developed for spreading all over pandal.
In general, four bud level of pruning for Pachadraksha, Bangalore Blue, Anab- e-Shahi, Dil Kush and Arka hybrids, five bud level for Red Globe, five to seven bud level for Muscat Hamburg and two bud level for Sharad Seedless, Thompson Seedless and its clones (After sub cane formation at 7th node) may be adopted. Before pruning, the pruning severity and bud level can be determined by bud forecasting technique. Canes of weak and immature nature should be pruned back to one or two buds to induce vegetative growth

Summer crop: Pruning in December – January and harvesting during April – May.
Winter crop: Pruning in May-June and harvesting during August – September
Double pruning for double cropping in Muscat Hamburg (Panneer)
For getting high yield with quality fruits, adoption of double pruning and double cropping system is the best for Muscat Hamburg (Panneer). The first pruning for getting summer crop can be practiced during December – January and harvesting is made during in April – May. The second pruning can be practised during May-June and harvesting during August – September. The vines are allowed for 2-3 months period of rest after harvesting till December. Apart from Muscat Hamburg, the varieties like Anab-e-Shahi, Clone A-18/3, Manjari Medika and H-516 are also highly suitable for adoption of double pruning for double cropping.
Double pruning for single cropping in commercial grapes varieties
For commercial grapes varieties viz., Red Globe, Thompson Seedless and its clones, Crimson Seedless, Flame Seedless, Fantasy Seedless and Sharad Seedless, adoption of double pruning for single cropping is the best practice for harvesting good quality fruits with high yield. The first pruning (Back pruning) is done at one to two bud level during August – September and allowed for vegetative growth. The second pruning is done on grown up vines (Forward or fruit pruning) during January-March and harvesting is made from May-August depending on the duration of varieties for attaining maturity. For example, the grapes variety Sharad Seedless matures in 100 to 110 days, whereas the Crimson Seedless takes 150 days for maturity.

Seedless grapes varieties
Requirement of nutrients for the grapevine is influenced by variety, age of the grapevine, soil, climatic behaviour and irrigation water quality. Nutrient application based on soil, water and petiole analysis will be appropriate and reduces unwanted / excess use of fertilizers. Excess nitrogen is responsible for vegetative growth and restricts the flower bud formation, number of bunches and yield. High phosphorus is directly useful for flower bud initiation and differentiation. The cane maturity is hastened by the application of potash which in turns responsible for flowering and bunch quality.
Recommended nutrient dose of fertilizers for grapes varieties viz., Thompson Seedless and its clones and Sharad Seedless should be applied 2 feet away from the main trunk base in trenches or in rings of 3-4 inch depth for better absorption

Recommended nutrient dose for table grapes varieties through soil application
Variety                                                                                                                                  Year
                                                                         I         II      III            I        II        III               I       II       III              I       II       III               I           II        III
                                                                                FYM (kg)        Greenleaves (kg)             Nitrogen (kg)             Phosphorus(kg)              Potash (kg)
Thompson                                                    50       50    100          50     50       100            0.20 0.40  0.60         0.08   0.16  0.24         0.40      0.80  1.20
Seedless
Sonaka,
Manik
Chaman

Recommended nutrient dose for table grapes varieties through fertigation
Growth stage (Days after pruning)                                           Nitrogen(kg/ha)                     Phosphorus(kg/ha)                         Potash (kg/ha)
Back pruning for vegetative growth
Pre-bud differentiation (1-30 days)                                                            80                                                         –                                                     –
Bud differentiation (31-60 days)                                                                  –                                                         213.3                                                –
Post bud differentiation (61-120 days)                                                        –                                                           –                                                   80
Forward pruning for fruiting
Pre-bloom (1-40 days)                                                                                  80                                                         –                                                     –
Bloom set and shatter (41-70 days)                                                            –                                                           106.6                                              –
Berry growth upto veraison (71-105days)                                                  80                                                          –                                                   80
Veraison to harvest (106-130 days)                                                             –                                                              –                                                   80
After harvest (Rest period > 20 days)                                                      26.6                                                       35.5                                              26.6
Total                                                                                                       266.6                                                  355.2                                         266.6

Muscat Hamburg (Panneer)
Immediately after harvesting, the vines are allowed for short term rest for a period of 15 days. During this period, irrigation and fertilizer application should be followed for recouping the vines. A trench of 3 to 4 inch depth with 2 feet width between two vines should be opened
and 500 g single superphosphate and 25 kg FYM should be applied in the trenches. The trench should be covered with the soil and earthing up is done for the formation of more white absorbent roots.
Recommended nutrient dose for grapes var. Muscat Hamburg (Panneer) through soil application
Variety                                                                                                                                          Year
                                                                      I          II           III             I         II          III          I          II         III           I       II      III              I       II        III
                                                                                 FYM (kg)                      Greenleaves (kg)      Nitrogen (kg)        Phosphorus(kg)            Potash (kg)
Muscat
Hamburg                                                   50      50         10
                                                                                                0                50       50       100       0.10    0.20   0.20     0.08      0.16     0.16     0.30  0.40  0.60
The manures should be applied twice after pruning. Apply half the dose of potash immediately after pruning and the other half after 60 days of pruning. Foliar spray of 0.1% boric acid + 0.2% ZnSO4 + 1.0% urea twice before flowering and 10 days after first spray to overcome nutrient deficiency in Muscat Hamburg.
 Apply 25 kg ZnSO4, 10kg borax, 50 kg FeSO4 + FYM, if the soil is deficient in respective nutrients.
 Foliar spraying of 0.2% ZnSO4 +0.1% boric acid + 0.5 % FeSO4 + 0.1 % citric acid twice during blooming and after 10 days

Shoot thinning
There will be lot of new shoots of more than 100 at faster rate after pruning from the buds of vines. More number of shoots will result in overcrowding which compete for nutrients and water and prone for pest and disease incidence with poor productivity. For growing the seedless varieties for export, less than 0.75 shoot, domestic market purpose 1 shoot and for Muscat Hamburg (Panneer) 2 shoots per square feet area should be retained. Shoot thinning should be practised at 4-5 leaf stage.
Sub cane development
Commercial seedless grapes varieties with high vigour require sub cane development to achieve high degree of fruitfulness. The vines supplied with high nitrogenous fertilizers and more irrigation also result into vigorous vegetative growth. To avoid the faster vegetative
growth, the shoots are pinched at particular node position. Then the lateral is allowed to take lead with slow growth with short internodes at base. This practice is known as sub cane development.
Training the shoots
To ensure proper micro climate inside the canopy the growing shoots are trained at proper distance in the “Y” trellis or pandal. Training the shoots will be helpful for light penetration and proper aeration to trigger the uniform cane maturity and also to avoid the pest and disease incidence.
Tipping
Tipping is practised by the retention of 9-11 leaves above the last cluster and tying of clusters in the pandal after the fruit set for berry development and maturity in the bunches. Further tendrils are also removed.
Nipping
Nipping is practised by removing the emerged shoots from axillary buds and terminal growth at 12th to 15th bud position from the base.
Cluster and berry thinning
Thinning of excess number of clusters prior to anthesis and thinning the compact bunches by removing 20 – 30 per cent of the berries at pea stage (3-4 mm size berries) using hand scissors should be followed. Dip the clusters in solution containing Brassinosteroid 0.5 ppm and GA3
25 ppm at 10-12 days after fruit set to maintain vigour, yield and quality parameters.

Pests
Flea beetles

 Remove loose bark at the time of pruning to prevent egg laying.
 Spray any one of the following
 Imidacloprid 17.8% SL 4ml/10 l.
 Cyantraniliprole 10.26% OD 7ml/10 l.
 Malathion 50EC 1.0 ml/l.
Thrips Spray any one of the following
 Cyantraniliprole 10.26 OD 7ml/10l.
 Emamectin benzoate 5 SG 4g/10l.
 Fipronil 80WG 1.5g/10l.


Mealybug

 Release coccinellid beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10 per vine.
 Spray Buprofezin 25 % SC @ 1.0 ml/l. or Methomyl 40 SP 1.25g/l.
Mite

 Spray Abamectin 1.9 EC 0.75 ml/l of water
Nematodes
Apply 60 g of carbofuran 3G or 20g of per vine a week before pruning and the plots are irrigated profusely. The soil should not be disturbed for at least 15 days. Thereafter normal manuring may be done. Application of neem cake @ 200g/vine also can be administered to
control nematodes. Alternatively, application of Pseudomonas fluorescens formulation in talc containing 15 x 108 colony forming units/g @ 100g/vine 30 cm away from base of the vine at least 15cm depth at the time of pruning.

Powdery mildew
 Spray wettable sulphur @ 0.3% or dust sulphur @ 6 -12 kg/ha in the morning or azoxystrobin @ 150 a.i./ha (600 ml/ha) at 30 days after pruning five times at 10 days interval
CIB recommendation
 Spray carbendazim 46.27 SC @ 1 ml/l or hexaconazole 2% SC @ 1.5-3 l/ha or hexaconazole 5% EC @ 1 ml/l or hexaconazole 5% SC @ 1ml/lit or lime sulphur 22% @ 1% or myclobutanil 10% WP @ 4 ml/10 l or penconazole 10% EC @ 5 ml/10 l or sulphur 40% WP @ 3 kg/ha or sulphur 55.16% SC @ 3 ml/l or sulphur 80% WP @ 2.5-5 kg/ha or sulphur 80% WG @ 1.8-2.5 kg/ha or metrafenone 500g/l SC @ 2.5 g/7.5 l of water or tetraconazole 3.8% w/w EW @ 7.5 ml/10 l or triadimefon 25% WP @1 g/10l or fluxapyroxad 250 g/l + pyraclostrobin 250 g/l SC @ 2 g/10 l
Downy mildew
 Spray Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 20 g/l on 25th and 45th days after pruning followed by spraying of azoxystrobin @ 1 ml/l on 35 and 55 days after pruning
 Remove infected tendrils and spray Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 20 g/l at 65 days after pruning
 Apply FYM @ 20 kg + Pf1 100 g/vine after pruning followed by spray with Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf 1) on 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 days after pruning to check the downy mildew

CIB recommendation
 Spray metalaxyl M 4% + mancozeb 64% WP @ 2.5 g/l or metalaxyl 18% + mancozeb 64% WP @ 5 g/l or copper oxychloride 50% WG @ 2.4g/l or copper hydroxide 53.8% DF @ 3 g/l or cymoxanil 50% WP @ 2.4 g/l or mandipropamid 23.4% SC @ 0.8 ml/l or zineb 75% WP @ 1.5-2 kg/ha or ziram 80% WP @ 1.5-2 kg/ha or dimethomorph 50% WP @ 10 g/7.5l or dimethomorph 12%+ pyraclostrobin 6.7% WG @ 1.5 g/10 l or fosetyl-AL 80% WP @ 2 g/l or amectotradin + dimethomorph 20.27% W/W SC @ 1 ml/7.5 l or oxathiapiprolin 10.1% W/W OD @ 4 g/l or propineb 70% WP @ 3 g/l or famoxadone 16.6% + cymoxanil 22.1 % SC @ 5 ml/l or fenamidone 4.44% + fosetyl Al 66.7 % WG @ 3 g/l or fenamidone 10% + mancozeb 50% WG @ 3 g/l or metiram 55%+ pyraclostrobin 5% WG @3 g/1.5 l
Anthracnose
 Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or copper fungicide @ 0.25 % or fluopicolide and forestyl aluminium formulation (profiler-fluopicolide 4.44% + fosetyl aluminium 66.7% – 71.14% WG) @ 0.2 % three times [First spray 15 days after pruning at 4-5 leaf stage) and the second and third spray at 10 days interval depending upon disease severity]
 Depending upon the weather conditions the sprays have to be increased
CIB recommendation
 Spray carbendazim 50% WP @ 0.5 g/l or iprodione 50% WP @ 1-2 kg/ha or kitazin 48% EC @ 2 ml/l
CIB recommendation for combined infections
Downy mildew, powdery mildew and anthracnose
 Spray carbendazim 12% + mancozeb 63 % WP @ 1.5 g/l or dust iprodione 50% WP @ 1-2 kg/ha or copper sulphate 47.15% + mancozeb 30 WDG 5 g/l or mancozeb 75% WP @1.5-2 kg/ha
Powdery mildew and downy mildew
 Spray azoxystrobin 23% SC @ 1 ml/l of water or kresoxim –methyl 44.3% SC 600-700 ml in 500 l/ha or picoxystrobin 22.52% W/W SC @ 4ml in 10l of water or boscalid 25.2% + pyraclostrobin 12.8 % @ 5 g/10 l
Downy mildew and anthracnose
 Spray mancozeb 75% WP @ 1.5 -2 kg/ha or ziram 80% WP @ 1.5-2.0 kg/ha
Powdery mildew and anthracnose
 Spray difenoconazole 25% EC @ 3 ml/10 l or benomyl 50% WP @ 300 g/750 l/ha or dimethomorph 50% @ 1000 g/750 l/ha or fluopicolide 4.44% + fosetyl aluminium 66.67% WG @ 0.5 g/l
Powdery mildew,anthracnose and rust
 Spray thiophanate methyl 70% WP @ 7.15 g/10 l or azoxystrobin 8.3% + mancozeb 66.7% WG @ 3 g/l
Anthracnose and bacterial leaf spot
 Spray kasugamycin 5% + copper oxychloride 45% WP @ 7.5 g /10 l
Preparation of 1% Bordeaux mixture
A quantity of 500 g of copper sulphate should be dissolved in 25 l of water and 500 g of lime in another 25 lit of water separately. The copper sulphate solution should be added to the lime solution constantly stirring the mixture. Earthern or wooden vessels and plastic containers
alone should be used and metallic containers should not be used. To find out whether the mixture is in correct proportion, a polished knife should be dipped in the mixture for one minute and taken out. If there is reddish brown deposit of copper, additional quantity of lime should be added till there is no deposit in the knife.

To get uniform ripening in Muscat, spray the bunches with 0.2% Potassium chloride (2 g /l) at 20th day after berry set, followed by another spray on 40th day. Dip the clusters of Thompson seedless and other seedless varieties at calyptra fall stage with 25 ppm GA (25 mg / l) and repeat again at pepper stage to increase the size of berries.
Retention of 9 leaves above the last cluster with the foliar application of 10 ppm GA3 when the berries at parrot green stage and 0.5 ppm of homobrassinolide was found to be the best for high yield and quality.
Foliar application of chelated EDTA calcium @ 0.2 % combined with boric acid @ 0.1 % during early berry development was highly effective for getting high yield and for reducing berry cracking.
Quality improvement in seedless grapes varieties
Extensive use of various plant growth hormones in seedless commercial grapes varieties is very common for enhancing the yield land quality. But one should be very careful about the stage of use and the concentration of these hormones. Gibberellic acid (GA3) application reduces number of flowers and also results in elongation of berries and bunches.
Plant growth regulators like Brassinolide, Benzyl Amino Purine (6-BAP) and CPPU increase the size of berries. The schedule and the concentration of different hormones for balanced crop, quality bunches and berries in seedless grape varieties
Days after pruning                                           Stage of bunch                                           Hormone                             Concentration(ppm)
28 – 30                                                                       Pre-bloom                                                        GA3                                                      10
32 – 35                                                                       Full bloom                                                        GA3                                                  20 – 25
40 – 42                                                                        Post set                                                           GA3                                                  30 – 40
45 – 50                                                  1 week later(Berry size of 3-4mm)                          GA3 + Brassinolide                                   25 + 1
50 – 55                                                  1 week later(Berry size of 6-8 mm)                         GA3 + Brassinolide or Benzyl Amino
                                                                                                                                                     Purine                                                         25 + 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         5 – 10
Use of GA3 during cloudy weather should be avoided. This results in excess flower dropping and reduces the fruit set. Likewise GA3 should not be used during full bloom stage to fruit set period. To ensure better results for GA3 on berry size and elongation, may be applied by spraying or dipping bunches

Thompson Seedless and its clones : 25 t / ha/ year
Muscat Hamburg (Panneer) : 30 t / ha / year
Red Globe : 20 t / ha / year
Crimson Seedless : 15 t / ha / year
Anab-e-Shahi and Arka hybrids : 20 t / ha / year

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