Coffee (Coffea arabica L.; Coffea canephora Pierre ex Frechna) ; Rubiaceae

Arabica varieties
Sln 795, Sln 7, Sln 9, Sln 10, Cauvery and its selections HRC (Hawaian Red Cuturra), Chandragiri and San Ramon
Robusta varieties
Sln 274, Sln 270, Sln 3.

Soil should be deep, friable, open textured rich in plant nutrients with plenty of humus and of slightly acidic nature (pH – 4.5 to 6.5)


Varieties                                               Elevation (m)                                             Rainfall (mm)                                               Distribution
Robusta                                               500 – 1000                                                   1000 – 2000                           Blossom shower – February – March
Arabica                                                 1000 – 1500                                                   1600 – 2500                           Blossom shower – March – April


Backing shower during April – May is required for both the varieties

By seeds.

Healthy and well developed fully ripe berries are harvested from specially identified plants for use as seed bearers. After discarding the floats, the sound fruits are depulped, sieved and mixed with sieved wood ash and dried in shade. The seed is then graded to 197 remove all cut, triangular and elephant beans. Prior to planting, the seeds are treated with agrosan or any organomercurial compound to prevent fungal infection.
Select light loamy soil of good drainage and high organic matter content with water and shade facilities. Form raised beds of 15 cm height, 1m width and of convenient length. Incorporate 30 – 40 kg of well rotten compost, 2 kg of finely sieved agricultural lime and 400 g of rock phosphate to a bed of 1 x 6 m size. In heavy soils, it is necessary to add coarse sand for drainage and aeration.
Pre-sowing seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria can be done. Seeds are sown in December – January in the bed 1.5 – 2.5 cm apart with the flat side down wards in regular rows. Then they are covered with a thin layer of fine soil and a layer of paddy straw. Water the beds daily and protect from direct sunlight by an over head pandal. Seeds germinate in about 45 days after which they are transplanted to secondary nursery beds for raising ball or bag nursery.
Polythene bags with adequate number of holes in the bottom half are taken and are filled with a prepared mixture containing jungle soil, FYM in the proportion of 6:2:1. An area of 12 x 8 m can accommodate 5000 seedlings. Seedlings are planted in polythene bags.

June – September.

Selective felling may be done while retaining a number of desirable shade trees. Terracing should be done in deep slopy areas. After the summer showers, pits of 45x45x45cm are dug. The pits are left open for weathering and then filled and heaped for planting. At the time of filling, apply 500 g of rock phosphate per pit along with top soil. Planting is done along the contour in slopy areas.

Arabica coffee: 1.5 to 2.0 m either way.
Dwarf varieties: San Ramon: 1 x 1 m.
Robusta coffee: 2.5 m either way.

Dadap is commonly used as a lower canopy shade. Stakes of 2 m length are planted for every two coffee plants. Silver Oak and Dadaps are planted during June when South-West monsoon commences. During summer the stem of young Dadaps are painted with diluted lime or wrapped with polythene sheets in order to prevent them from sun scorch. Regulate shade by cutting criss-cross branches during monsoon season. Silver oak trees are planted at 6x6m for permanent shade.
It is generally grown as a rainfed crop. But irrigation with sprinkler during March – April increases blossoming and results in higher yields.

Species   

                 Pre-blossom                  Post-blossom                    Midmonsoon                    Postmonsoon
    

                                             March
                                       N:P2O5:K2O
                                           (kg/ha)

Post –
blossom
May
N:P2O5:K2O
(kg/ha)
Midmonsoon
August
N:P2O5:K2O
(kg/ha)
Postmonsoon
October
N:P2O5:K2O
(kg/ha)
Total
(kg/ha)
ARABICA
Young coffee 1st
year
After planting
15:10:15 15:10:15 — 15:10:15 45:30:45
2
nd and 3rd year 20:10:20 20:10:20 — 20:15:20 60:45:60
4
th year 30:20:30 20:20:20 — 30:20:30 80:60:80
Bearing coffee 5
years and and
above for less than
one tonne/ha crop
40:30:40 40:30:40 40:30:40 140:90:120
For one tonne/ha
and above
40:30:40 40:30:40 40:30:40 40:30:40 160:120:160

 

 

 

ROBUSTA
For less than one tonne/ ha crop           40:30:40 — — 40:30:40 80:60:80
For 1 tonne /ha and
above
40:30:40 40:30:40 — 40:30:40 120:90:120

Centering and desuckering should be carried out for 5-6 years after planting.Done immediately after the harvest (June-July and September – October) and till the onset of monsoon. Unproductive wood between all primaries, secondaries and tertiaries should be removed.
Rejuvenation / collar Pruning
Removal of dead, exhausted, dried and worn out branches. Done immediately after the harvest.
Hard pruning
Plants are cut at 5-20 cm above the ground level and one leader shoot is allowed.
Medium Pruning
Removal of lateral shoots to regulate shade.
Light pruning
Removal of Suckers.

Weeding and mulching should be done as and when necessary. Digging is done to a depth of 30 cm towards the end of monsoon (October – November). The weeds and vegetative debris are completely turned under and buried in the soil, while the stumps are removed. This is known as the cover digging. In slopy areas, dig trenches on the contour 45 cm wide and 30 cm deep of any convenient length. Prune water shoots and disease affected shoots.

Pests
White stem borer
Attacks arabica coffee grown under inadequate shade.
 Maintain/create optimum shade
 Borer infested plants should be thoroughly traced, uprooted during March and September, burnt to avoid economic loss during the subsequent years.
 Install pheromone traps @ 25 /ha, if the incidence is high.
 Remove the loose scaly bark on the main stem and thick primaries using coir glove or coconut husk.
 Pad with chlorpyriphos 25% EC @ 5 ml by making a window in the stem at 5 cm x 5
cm and fill it with absorbant cotton dipped in insecticide solution and close it.
Berry borer
 Carry out timely and thorough harvest.
 Avoid gleanings as far as possible.
 Pick up and destroy the gleanings.
 Meticulously remove the leftover berries.
 Remove offseason berries to save main crop.
 Avoid excessive shade.
 Prune plants properly to facilitate better ventilation and illumination.
 While processing at the estate level, dry coffee berries to the prescribed moisture level :
Arabica / robusta parchment 10 %, Arabica cherry 10.5 % and robusta cherry 11.0 %.


Shot hole borer beetle
Attacks branches and suckers of robusta coffee. This pest thrives under heavy shade
and can be controlled by pruning the branches
Green scales and mealy bugs:
 Release coccinellid predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 300 beetles/acre.
 Spray Lecanicillium lecanii @ 6 x 106 spores/ml or spray any one of the following insecticide:
Insecticide                                                                Dose
Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC                             2.5 ml/lit.
Quinalphos 25 % EC                                                2.5 ml/lit.
Leaf miner
Spray Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC @ 2.5 ml/lit

Rust
 Spray 0.5 % bordeaux mixture in February – March (Pre-bloom) followed by 0.03 % oxycarboxin in May – June (Pre-monsoon).
 Repeat in July – August (mid-monsoon) and September – October (Post-monsoon) with any one of the above fungicides or
 Spray 0.5 % bordeaux mixture during the month of June followed by 0.02 % triadimefon during September and 0.5 % bordeaux mixture           during the month of December


CIB recommendation
 Spray tebuconazole 50% + trifloxystrobin 25% WG @ 300 g/ha or pyroclostrobin 133g/l+ epoxiconazole 50 g/l SE @ 750 ml/ha
Black rot or Koleroga
 Centering and handling of the bushes should be done prior to the onset of South-West monsoon
 Remove affected twigs
 Spray 1% bordeaux mixture during break in monsoon
CIB recommendation
 Spray tebuconazole 50 % + trifloxystrobin 25 % WG @ 300 g/ha
Collar rot
 Treat the seeds with carbendazim @ 1 g/kg or carboxin @ 0.7 g/kg
 Maintain filtered shade in nursery
 Drench nursery beds with mancozeb or captan 0.5 g/l before sowing
Brown eye spot
 Spray mancozeb @ 2 g/l or carbendazim @ 0.5 g/l durinf September month
Black root rot
 Dig out and burn infected bushes
 Dig a trench 30 cm deep around affected spot along with a ring of healthy bushes
 Prune the healthy bushes within and outside the trench to allow sunlight
 Keep the trench free from fallen leaves
 Do not replant for 18 months

Harvest starts during October and extends upto February. Coffee fruits should be harvested as and when they become ripe. Coffee is just ripe when on gently squeezing the fruits the beans inside come out easily.
Small scale picking of ripe berries during October to February
Well formed and ripened berries are harvested during December. Bulk of the yields are obtained from this picking.
Picking of all the berries left irrespective of ripening.
This is collection of fruits that have been dropped during harvesting. Unripe fruits should be scrupulously sorted out before using the fruits for pulping. They may be dried separately as cherry.

Dry parchment 750 – 1000 kg/ha.

Growing Districts                                    Dindigul, Nilgiris, Salem and Theni
Major markets in Tamil Nadu             Coonoor, Bodinayakanur, Mettupalayam
Types                                                         Arabica, Robusta
Grade specification                                Washed, Unwashed, Monsooned, Instant, Ground, Roasted, Speciality

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